In order to satisfy the working conditions for the floors described and illustrated in the section “application”, the company LARIA has studied a range of specific products in ceramic klinker of high quality. There are various needs that a horizontal partition (reverse and/or intermediate flooring) has to fulfill.
The tile floor together with the concrete layer has to guarantee the following needs:
– load resistance (distributed or concentrated)
– pressing resistance
– resistance to changes in temperature
– allows drainage of various liquids
The tile floor has to guarantee the following needs in “autonomy”:
– resistance to use and abrasive factors
– resistance to corrosive substances
– ease of cleaning
– lack of slipperiness
During the planning these last two characteristics (ease of cleaning and lack of slipperiness) of the surface have to be discussed together; it is often said that giving priority to one of them means penalizing the other, but this is not always true.
Our client can choose between two types of tile, NATURALE or LARSTONE, complete with all special pieces. The products are available with increasingly more slipperiness, but all very similar with regard to the cleaning.
Indeed the laboratory tests have shown that the test floor (including the resin sealing of a jointed floor) satisfies the required regulations (D.M. 14-6-89, n.236): an average coefficient of attrition above 0,40 for all kinds of solutions. With the microscope (but also just by looking at it) you can notice that the tile of the LARSTONE type has round bulges, which makes it less slippery and is the result of heating the ferrous parts in the material which is brought to a temperature of about 1250°Celsius so that the parts melt into the tile.
|Water absorption (% in weight)||0,87÷3||EN 99|
|Linear thermal expansion coefficient (x.106.C° -1)||6||EN 103|
|Surface hardness (MOHS scale)||6÷7||EN 101|
|Weight of volume unit (g/cm3)||≥ 2,2|
|Pressure resistance (N/mm2)||35÷40||EN 100|
|Resistance to acid a base substances||guaranteed||EN 106|
|Resistance to sudden changes in temperature||guaranteed||EN 104|
|Resistance to freezing||guaranteed||EN 202|
|Resistance to abrasion for varnished tiles||P.E.I.III÷IV|
|Resistance to deep abrasion (taken volume/mm2)||155||EN 102|
The raw materials to make the industrial klinker tiles are: 55-60% German clay coming from the area of Westerwald; 40-45% Italian clay, sand with feldspar and silicon; metallic oxides in minimal percentage eventually to colour the clay (Titanium – Iron – Manganese). The mixture is prepared by grinding with water, laminating and mixing. The tiles are industrially formed by string extrusion process with formation of double tiles. Then tiles are fired in the tunnel stove, heated with methane gas, with slow cycle (approximately 70 hours) at a temperature above 1200°Celsius.